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NORML’s Russ Belville vs. former ONDCP’s Dr. Kevin Sabet on Marijuana Legalization at James A. Baker Institute (VIDEO)

  • by Russ Belville, NORML Outreach Coordinator March 11, 2012

    DFW NORML's "Truth Enforcement Vehicle" was parked out front of the Baker Institute flashing the green lights to lead people to the event.

    My undying thanks go out to The James A. Baker Institute for Public Policy for the invitation to participate in this illustrious event. I learned so much from the incredible presentations of Rev. Edwin Sanders, Sen. Larry Campbell, Prof. Alex Stevens, Dr. Ethan Nadelmann, Prof. Michelle Alexander, and everyone who participated.

    I also thank the crews from DFW NORML, Houston NORML, and NORML of Waco Inc. for showing up with the Truth Enforcement Vehicle, putting on a great fundraiser, and showing me a NORML (if a little traffic-laden) good time in H-town.  (Once again, like last year, wherever I go, Portland-like rain follows me, leading Professor Bluntston to exclaim, “Russ ‘Break It Down’ Belville done brought the rain!”)

    Debating Kevin Sabet was fun.  Before we went up, he thanked me for devoting half of my show to him (it was only a quarter, but whatever) and suggested that maybe it isn’t a good idea for me to give up my whole debate strategy before the debate.  I told him that when you have truth, facts, logic, and reason on your side, you don’t have to have much of a strategy.

    Please take the time to watch the other videos from presenters at the Baker Institute.  I’m flattered by all the hits my video is getting, but you’ll learn a whole lot more from the learned people on the other videos.

    159 Responses to “NORML’s Russ Belville vs. former ONDCP’s Dr. Kevin Sabet on Marijuana Legalization at James A. Baker Institute (VIDEO)”

    1. Tlc says:

      Finally got to the video with Russ…saw Russ apparently in thought over Dr Sabet’s talking points…saw Russ writing stuff down…kept thinking how Russ was going to shoot down several points :) … then the rebuttal started and barely into it Dr Sabet politely asked if he could interject, Russ said sure, Sabet proceeded to less politely interrupt every single time Russ made valid points. It was like watching football: run out the clock.

      One thing I learned from watching this was the impact on myself in regards to the notion of locking someone in a cage. I have said the same in discussion, but hearing it made me think that the reality of that isn’t stated enough. Nothing about the consequences of current drug policy (I like that, not crime/victim but government policy) is acceptable if it means the treatment is a cage. Even Sabet said, if that’s your thing go do it…which I don’t see him saying to a sex offender… Sometimes cages are needed, and we are not flip about it when that is the case.

      [Russ responds: Ah, yes, the Drug War Filibuster tactic. I also liked how he'd say something, then mention a fact I was about to mention, and then tells me "don't go there." Well, gosh, if you're going to tell me which of my best rebuttals not to use, that sure makes the debate easier, huh?]

    2. adam says:

      I like the Kevin Sabat’s claim that “This isn’t about rounding up everyone… If you want to smoke pot… I’m not concerned about that…” It’s a baldfaced lie. Nothing like a big lie right in people’s faces.

      He’s arguing against legalization. In effect he IS advocating that people should be rounded up who smoke pot. He’s a liar and fake.

    3. Gene says:

      When he said if we legalize marijuana drug dealers will undercut the price he is admitting its about the money. They don’t care about what the people want. He also said most people don’t go to jail. Maybe they don’t but what about the people who lose there job because they smoke weed on Saturday or on there vacation then return to work and failed a drug test. What about those people now. O job means no income for something they never did at work.

    4. Lawett says:

      I like this color green.

    5. Bbbababart says:

      This was like a circus show. At times it reached the depth of a tenth grade culture class video… Most of it was like, a total fake. These people aren’t debating real issues. This is all false. This is all a stage show. It has nothing to do with reality.

      Reminds me of UFO rallies.

      Well, at least cannabis has roots…

    6. Jim says:

      “but at least there isn’t a death toll in the 10?s of thousands in the wake of the black market supplying these goods.”

      Black markets are created…as a direct result of public policy that should be reviewed quickly by designers of the product, esp. in relation to the law.

      Used by the every-day workers who have to deal with strange, inaccurate tests at the lowest cost (walmart equate) Black markets are ad hoc systems where suppliers provide demand by presenting a thing but not stating why. Here there are many walmarts and 7-11′s and circle K’s.

      Take a power nap! even 10 minutes will help. I will assist you in your wake up time

      Go

      Demanders have been told by their legislators that 1) they have a right to ban Cannabis for all people, in order to belch out a song at Super Bowl Half-time show 2) somehow, your love of country and intelligence and drive will take you farther than you ever thought was useful.

    7. Brenda Whittaker says:

      I need to get the word out. In Arizona I was given medical license to use medical marijuana as an amputee
      with terrible pain and sleeplessness. Despite my license, a local form of a DEA invaded my home pointing
      guns at me. They destroyed my home, broke things, confiscated things, accused me of selling and using
      other drugs, laughed at me, belittled me, tackled anyone that came to my house during this, arrested me,
      and threw me in jail. I spent three days there, being accused at one point of detoxing, stripped naked
      and thrown into a solitary confinement cell for 24 hours. I was not given shoes for my special amputee
      condition, and yelled at for not having shoes. I had to put up my house and car for bail, have to pay off
      a car title loan at 150% interest, am facing 20 years and a million dollars in fines, all this after having
      been given license to use by the very state that is trying to prosecute me and extort as much money
      from me as possible. Please help me. And help me get the word out. This is beyond abuse and
      it needs to be known, and fought. Sincerely, Brenda Whittaker 928.634.6677

    8. Psu says:

      I wish a true libertarian had a good chance at winning an election

    9. Psu says:

      look at what happens when you have unfair conditions for competition. the bad guys win.

    10. Psu says:

      the antidote for “marijuana overdose is water” the lethal threshold is very high.

      Ethanol poisoning is caused by drinking too much alcohol,” and can be found with respect to “Alcohol beverages, including: beer, gin, vodka, wine, whiskey.”

      “Symptoms inlcude:
      * Abdominal pain
      * Coma
      * Intestinal bleeding
      * Moving from side to side
      * Slowed breathing
      * Slurred speech
      * Stupor
      * Unable to walk normally
      * Vomiting

      Cannabis
      1.(safety of cannabis) “Tetrahydrocannabinol is a very safe drug. Laboratory animals (rats, mice, dogs, monkeys) can tolerate doses of up to 1,000 mg/kg (milligrams per kilogram). This would be equivalent to a 70 kg person swallowing 70 grams of the drug—about 5,000 times more than is required to produce a high. Despite the widespread illicit use of cannabis there are very few if any instances of people dying from an overdose. In Britain, official government statistics listed five deaths from cannabis in the period 1993-1995 but on closer examination these proved to have been deaths due to inhalation of vomit that could not be directly attributed to cannabis (House of Lords Report, 1998). By comparison with other commonly used recreational drugs these statistics are impressive.”

      Source: Iversen, Leslie L., PhD, FRS, “The Science of Marijuana” (London, England: Oxford University Press, 2000), p. 178, citing House of Lords, Select Committee on Science and Technology, “Cannabis — The Scientific and Medical Evidence” (London, England: The Stationery Office, Parliament, 1998).

      2.(no deaths induced by marijuana) An exhaustive search of the literature finds no deaths induced by marijuana. The US Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN) records instances of drug mentions in medical examiners’ reports, and though marijuana is mentioned, it is usually in combination with alcohol or other drugs. Marijuana alone has not been shown to cause an overdose death.

      Source: Source: Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN), available on the web at http://www.samhsa.gov/ ; also see Janet E. Joy, Stanley J. Watson, Jr., and John A. Benson, Jr., “Marijuana and Medicine: Assessing the Science Base,” Division of Neuroscience and Behavioral Research, Institute of Medicine (Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1999), available on the web at http://www.nap.edu/html/marimed/; and US Department of Justice, Drug Enforcement Administration, “In the Matter of Marijuana Rescheduling Petition” (Docket #86-22), September 6, 1988, p. 57.

    11. Psu says:

      Medical useMain article: Medical cannabis
      Cannabis used medically has several well-documented beneficial effects. Among these are: the amelioration of nausea and vomiting, stimulation of hunger in chemotherapy and AIDS patients, lowered intraocular eye pressure (shown to be effective for treating glaucoma), as well as general analgesic effects (pain reliever).b[›]

      Less confirmed individual studies also have been conducted indicating cannabis to be beneficial to a gamut of conditions running from multiple sclerosis to depression. Synthesized cannabinoids are also sold as prescription drugs, including Marinol (dronabinol in the United States and Germany) and Cesamet (nabilone in Canada, Mexico, the United States and the United Kingdom).b[›] In 2011, an oromucosal spray for Multiple Sclerosis patients became licensed for use as a medicine from the European regulatory body, allowing it to be routinely prescribed by doctors.[18]

      Currently, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has not approved smoked cannabis for any condition or disease in the United States, largely because good quality scientific evidence for its use from U.S. studies is lacking. Regardless, fourteen states have legalized cannabis for medical use.[19][20] The United States Supreme Court has ruled in United States v. Oakland Cannabis Buyers’ Coop and Gonzales v. Raich that it is the federal government that has the right to regulate and criminalize cannabis, even for medical purposes. Canada, Spain, The Netherlands and Austria have legalized some form of cannabis for medicinal use.[21]

      Long-term effectsMain article: Long-term effects of cannabis
      Main article: Cannabis smoking#Smoking lung cancer risk

      Cannabis is ranked one of the least harmful drugs by a study published in the UK medical journal, The Lancet.[22]Given the limitations of the research, scientists still debate the possibility of cannabis dependence; the potential of cannabis as a “gateway drug”; its effects on intelligence and memory; its effect on the lungs; and the relationship, if any, of cannabis use to mental disorders[23] such as schizophrenia,[24] psychosis,[25] Depersonalization disorder[26] and depression.[27]

    12. Psu says:

      Deaths associated to cannabis overdose are exceptionally rare.

    13. Psu says:

      Cannabis was used as a truth serum by the Office of Strategic Services (OSS), a US government intelligence agency formed during World War II. In the early 1940s, it was the most effective truth drug developed at the OSS labs at St. Elizabeths Hospital; it caused a subject “to be loquacious and free in his impartation of information.”[119]

      In May 1943, Major George Hunter White, head of OSS counter-intelligence operations in the US, arranged a meeting with Augusto Del Gracio, an enforcer for gangster Lucky Luciano. Del Gracio was given cigarettes spiked with THC concentrate from cannabis, and subsequently talked openly about Luciano’s heroin operation. On a second occasion the dosage was increased such that Del Gracio passed out for two hours.[119]

    14. Psu says:

      In the United States, cannabis is overall the #4 value crop, and is #1 or #2 in many states including California, New York and Florida, averaging $3,000/lb.[113][114] It is believed to generate an estimated $36 billion market

    15. Psu says:

      Main article: Cannabis cultivation
      It is often claimed by growers and breeders of herbal cannabis that advances in breeding and cultivation techniques have increased the potency of cannabis since the late 1960s and early ’70s, when THC was first discovered and understood. However, potent seedless cannabis such as “Thai sticks” were already available at that time. Sinsemilla (Spanish for “without seed”) is the dried, seedless inflorescences of female cannabis plants. Because THC production drops off once pollination occurs, the male plants (which produce little THC themselves) are eliminated before they shed pollen to prevent pollination. Advanced cultivation techniques such as hydroponics, cloning, high-intensity artificial lighting, and the sea of green method are frequently employed as a response (in part) to prohibition enforcement efforts that make outdoor cultivation more risky. It is often cited that the average levels of THC in cannabis sold in United States rose dramatically between the 1970s and 2000, but such statements are likely skewed because of undue weight given to much more expensive and potent, but less prevalent samples.[120] The average THC level in coffee shops in the Netherlands is currently about 18–19%, but new regulations adopted by the Dutch government in 2011 will force the THC content of cannabis sold in coffee shops to be limited to 15%, stating that cannabis in excess of 15% THC will be reclassified as a hard drug.

    16. Psu says:

      AdulterantsChalk (in the Netherlands) and glass particles (in the UK) have been used to make cannabis appear to be higher quality.[50][51][52] Increasing the weight of hashish products in Germany with lead caused lead intoxication in at least 29 users.[53] In the Netherlands two chemical analogs of Sildenafil (Viagra) were found in adulterated marijuana.[54]

      According to both the “Talk to FRANK” website and the UKCIA website, Soap Bar, “perhaps the most common type of hash in the UK”, was found “at worst” to contain turpentine, tranquilizers, boot polish, henna and animal feces—amongst several other things.[55][56] One small study of five “soap-bar” samples seized by UK Customs in 2001 found huge adulteration by many toxic substances, including soil, glue, engine oil and animal feces.[57

    17. Psu says:

      wonder if they were drinking tony

    18. Psu says:

      Detection of useTHC and its major (inactive) metabolite, THC-COOH, can be measured in blood, urine, hair, oral fluid or sweat using chromatographic techniques as part of a drug use testing program or a forensic investigation of a traffic or other criminal offense. The concentrations obtained from such analyses can often be helpful in distinguishing active use from passive exposure, prescription use from illicit use, elapsed time since use, and extent or duration of use. These tests cannot, however, distinguish authorized cannabis smoking for medical purposes from unauthorized recreational smoking.[58] Commercial cannabinoid immunoassays, often employed as the initial screening method when testing physiological specimens for marijuana presence, have different degrees of cross-reactivity with THC and its metabolites. Urine contains predominantly THC-COOH, while hair, oral fluid and sweat contain primarily THC. Blood may contain both substances, with the relative amounts dependent on the recency and extent of usage.[58][59][60][61]

      The Duquenois-Levine test is commonly used as a screening test in the field, but it cannot definitively confirm the presence of cannabis, as a large range of substances have been shown to give false positives. Despite this, it is common in the United States for prosecutors to seek plea bargains on the basis of positive D-L tests, claiming them definitive, or even to seek conviction without the use of gas chromatography confirmation, which can only be done in the lab.[62]

    19. Psu says:

      Hash oil
      BHOMain article: Hash oil
      Hash oil, or “butane honey oil” (BHO), is a mix of essential oils and resins extracted from mature cannabis foliage through the use of various solvents. It has a high proportion of cannabinoids (ranging from 40 to 90%).[33] and is used in a variety of cannabis foods.

      Residue (resin)Because of THC’s adhesive properties, a sticky residue, most commonly known as “resin”, builds up inside utensils used to smoke cannabis. It has tar-like properties but still contains THC as well as other cannabinoids. This buildup retains some of the psychoactive properties of cannabis but is more difficult to smoke without discomfort caused to the throat and lungs. This tar may also contain CBN, which is a breakdown product of THC. Cannabis users typically only smoke residue when cannabis is unavailable. Glass pipes may be water-steamed at a low temperature prior to scraping in order to make the residue easier to remove

    20. Psu says:

      For the plant genus, see Cannabis.

      Dried flowers of the Cannabis sativa plant with visible trichomes.Cannabis, also known as marijuana[1] (from the Mexican Spanish marihuana) and by other names,a[›] refers to preparations of the Cannabis plant intended for use as a psychoactive drug and as medicine.[2][3][4] Chemically, the major psychoactive compound in cannabis is delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (?9-THC); it is one of 400 compounds in the plant, including other cannabinoids, such as cannabidiol (CBD), cannabinol (CBN), and tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV), which can produce sensory effects unlike the psychoactive effects of THC.[5]

      Contemporary uses of cannabis are as recreational drug, as religious rite, as spiritual rite, and as medicine; the earliest recorded uses date from the 3rd millennium BC.[6] In 2004, the United Nations estimated that global consumption of cannabis indicated that approximately 4.0 percent of the adult world population (162 million people) used cannabis annually, and that approximately 0.6 percent (22.5 million) of people used cannabis daily.[7] Since the early 20th century cannabis has been subject to legal restrictions with the possession, use, and sale of cannabis preparations containing psychoactive cannabinoids currently illegal in most countries of the world; the United Nations has said that cannabis is the most used illicit drug in the world.[8][9]

    21. Psu says:

      EffectsMain article: Effects of cannabis

      Main short-term physical effects of cannabisCannabis has psychoactive and physiological effects when consumed. The minimum amount of THC required to have a perceptible psychoactive effect is about 10 micrograms per kilogram of body weight.[10] Aside from a subjective change in perception and, most notably, mood, the most common short-term physical and neurological effects include increased heart rate, lowered blood pressure, impairment of short-term and working memory,[11] psychomotor coordination, and concentration. Long-term effects are less clear.[12][13]

      Deaths associated to cannabis overdose are exceptionally rare. Fatalities resulting from cannabis overdose are said to most often occur after intravenous injection of hashish oil.[14]

    22. Psu says:

      ClassificationMain article: Psychoactive effects
      While many psychoactive drugs clearly fall into the category of either stimulant, depressant, or hallucinogen, cannabis exhibits a mix of all properties, perhaps leaning the most towards hallucinogenic or psychedelic properties, though with other effects quite pronounced as well. Though THC is typically considered the primary active component of the cannabis plant, various scientific studies have suggested that certain other cannabinoids like CBD may also play a significant role in its psychoactive effects.[15][16][17]

    23. Psu says:

      Currently, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has not approved smoked cannabis for any condition or disease in the United States, largely because good quality scientific evidence for its use from U.S. studies is lacking. Regardless, fourteen states have legalized cannabis for medical use.[19][20] The United States Supreme Court has ruled in United States v. Oakland Cannabis Buyers’ Coop and Gonzales v. Raich that it is the federal government that has the right to regulate and criminalize cannabis, even for medical purposes. Canada, Spain, The Netherlands and Austria have legalized some form of cannabis for medicinal use.[21]

    24. Psu says:

      Residue (resin)Because of THC’s adhesive properties, a sticky residue, most commonly known as “resin”, builds up inside utensils used to smoke cannabis. It has tar-like properties but still contains THC as well as other cannabinoids. This buildup retains some of the psychoactive properties of cannabis but is more difficult to smoke without discomfort caused to the throat and lungs. This tar may also contain CBN, which is a breakdown product of THC. Cannabis users typically only smoke residue when cannabis is unavailable. Glass pipes may be water-steamed at a low temperature prior to scraping in order to make the residue easier to remove.[34]

    25. Psu says:

      man i wonder if Ron Paul knows about insurance liabilities? he isnt a doctor is he?

    26. Psu says:

      ProcessedKiefMain article: Kief
      Kief is a powder, rich in trichomes, which can be sifted from the leaves and flowers of cannabis plants and either consumed in powder form or compressed to produce cakes of hashish.[31]

    27. Psu says:

      Unprocessed
      Dried Cannabis flowers in natural herbal formThe terms cannabis or marijuana generally refer to the dried flowers and subtending leaves and stems of the female cannabis plant.[citation needed] This is the most widely consumed form, containing 3% to 22% THC.[28][29] In contrast, cannabis varieties used to produce industrial hemp contain less than 1% THC and are thus not valued for recreational use.[30]

    28. Psu says:

      y do people drink :) tell us why

    29. Psu says:

      good call brenda btw

    30. Psu says:

      Bales is a war hero to!

    31. Psu says:

      Psu sees some green y dont u?

    32. Psu says:

      In 1937 in the United States, the Marihuana Tax Act was passed, and prohibited the production of hemp in addition to cannabis. The reasons that hemp was also included in this law are disputed. Several scholars have claimed that the Act was passed in order to destroy the hemp industry,[94][95][96] largely as an effort of businessmen Andrew Mellon, Randolph Hearst, and the Du Pont family.[94][96] With the invention of the decorticator, hemp became a very cheap substitute for the paper pulp that was used in the newspaper industry.[94][97] Hearst felt that this was a threat to his extensive timber holdings. Mellon, Secretary of the Treasury and the wealthiest man in America, had invested heavily in the DuPont’s new synthetic fiber, nylon, and considered its success to depend on its replacement of the traditional resource, hemp.[94][98][99][100][101][102][103][104] The claims that hemp could have been a successful substitute for wood pulp have been based on an incorrect government report of 1916 which concluded that hemp hurds, broken parts of the inner core of the hemp stem, were a suitable source for paper production. This has not been confirmed by later research, as hemp hurds are not reported to be a good enough substitute. Many advocates for hemp have greatly overestimated the proportion of useful cellulose in hemp hurds. In 2003, 95?% of the hemp hurds in EU were used for animal bedding, almost 5?% were used as building material.[105][106][107][108] See also Hemp.

    33. Psu says:

      in 1937, there was a war on. International Law Demands that marijuana be classified as a narcotic. At least thats how it went then. Before the 1920′s there were no laws regulating the sale of cocaine. you could buy it at any corner store. Penalizing people with jail time for possession is winning the war on freedom. If any penalty shall isssue for marijuana use, why not a 150$ fine?

    34. Psu says:

      10 micrograms is .01 grams. that is a mere speck similar to size of a dose of acid.

    35. Psu says:

      Lysergic acid diethylamide, abbreviated LSD or LSD-25, also known as lysergide and colloquially as acid, is a semisynthetic psychedelic drug of the ergoline family, well known for its psychological effects which can include altered thinking processes, closed and open eye visuals, synaesthesia, an altered sense of time and spiritual experiences, as well as for its key role in 1960s counterculture. It is used mainly as an entheogen, recreational drug, and as an agent in psychedelic therapy. LSD is non-addictive, is not known to cause brain damage, and has extremely low toxicity relative to dose, although in rare cases adverse psychiatric reactions such as anxiety or delusions are possible.[3]

      LSD was first synthesized by Albert Hofmann in 1938 from ergotamine, a chemical derived by Arthur Stoll from ergot, a grain fungus that typically grows on rye. The short form “LSD” comes from its early code name LSD-25, which is an abbreviation for the German “Lysergsäure-diethylamid” followed by a sequential number.[4][5] LSD is sensitive to oxygen, ultraviolet light, and chlorine, especially in solution, though its potency may last for years if it is stored away from light and moisture at low temperature. In pure form it is a colorless, odorless, and mildly bitter solid.[6] LSD is typically delivered orally, usually on a substrate such as absorbent blotter paper, a sugar cube, or gelatin. In its liquid form, it can also be administered by intramuscular or intravenous injection. LSD is very potent, with 20–30 µg (micrograms) being the threshold dose.[7]

      Introduced by Sandoz Laboratories, with trade-name Delysid, as a drug with various psychiatric uses in 1947, LSD quickly became a therapeutic agent that appeared to show great promise.[8] In the 1950s, officials at the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) thought the drug might be applicable to mind control and chemical warfare; the agency’s MKULTRA research program propagated the drug among young servicemen and students. The subsequent recreational use of the drug by youth culture in the Western world during the 1960s led to a political firestorm that resulted in its prohibition.[9] Currently, a number of organizations—including the Beckley Foundation, MAPS, Heffter Research Institute and the Albert Hofmann Foundation—exist to fund, encourage and coordinate research into the medicinal and spiritual uses of LSD and related psychedelics.[10]

    36. Psu says:

      no wonder why no one listened to Timothy Leary huh? Good thing its not an election year

    37. Psu says:

      I mean Leary just liked to put biscuits in the microwave. Wasnt insane was he?

    38. Psu says:

      Effects[edit] PhysicalLSD can cause pupil dilation, reduced appetite (for some, it increases), and wakefulness. Other physical reactions to LSD are highly variable and nonspecific, and some of these reactions may be secondary to the psychological effects of LSD. The following symptoms have been reported: numbness, weakness, nausea, hypothermia or hyperthermia (decreased or increased body temperature), elevated blood sugar, goose bumps, increase in heart rate, jaw clenching, perspiration, saliva production, mucus production, sleeplessness, hyperreflexia, and tremors. Some users, including Albert Hofmann, report a strong metallic taste for the duration of the effects.[11]

      LSD is not considered addictive by the medical community.[12] Rapid tolerance build-up prevents regular use, and there is cross-tolerance shown between LSD, mescaline[13] and psilocybin.[14] This tolerance diminishes after a few days without use and is probably caused by downregulation of 5-HT2A receptors in the brain.[citation needed]

      [edit] PsychologicalLSD’s psychological effects (colloquially called a “trip”) vary greatly from person to person, depending on factors such as previous experiences, state of mind and environment, as well as dose strength. They also vary from one trip to another, and even as time passes during a single trip. An LSD trip can have long-term psychoemotional effects; some users cite the LSD experience as causing significant changes in their personality and life perspective. Widely different effects emerge based on what Timothy Leary called set and setting; the “set” being the general mindset of the user, and the “setting” being the physical and social environment in which the drug’s effects are experienced.

      Some psychological effects may include an experience of radiant colors, objects and surfaces appearing to ripple or “breathe”, colored patterns behind the closed eyelids (eidetic imagery), an altered sense of time (time seems to be stretching, repeating itself, changing speed or stopping), crawling geometric patterns overlaying walls and other objects, morphing objects, a sense that one’s thoughts are spiraling into themselves, loss of a sense of identity or the ego (known as “ego death”), and other powerful psycho-physical reactions.[15] Many users experience a dissolution between themselves and the “outside world”.[16] This unitive quality may play a role in the spiritual and religious aspects of LSD. The drug sometimes leads to disintegration or restructuring of the user’s historical personality and creates a mental state that some users report allows them to have more choice regarding the nature of their own personality.[citation needed]

      If the user is in a hostile or otherwise unsettling environment, or is not mentally prepared for the powerful distortions in perception and thought that the drug causes, effects are more likely to be unpleasant than if he or she is in a comfortable environment and has a relaxed, balanced and open mindset.[17]

      [edit] SensoryLSD causes expansion and an altered experience of senses, emotions, memories, time, and awareness for 6 to 14 hours, depending on dosage and tolerance. Generally beginning within thirty to ninety minutes after ingestion, the user may experience anything from subtle changes in perception to overwhelming cognitive shifts. Changes in auditory and visual perception are typical.[16][18] Visual effects include the illusion of movement of static surfaces (“walls breathing”), after image-like trails of moving objects (“tracers”), the appearance of moving colored geometric patterns (especially with closed eyes), an intensification of colors and brightness (“sparkling”), new textures on objects, blurred vision, and shape suggestibility. Users commonly report that the inanimate world appears to animate in an unexplainable way; for instance, objects that are static in three dimensions can seem to be moving relative to one or more additional spatial dimensions.[19] Many of the basic visual effects resemble the phosphenes seen after applying pressure to the eye and have also been studied under the name “form constants”. The auditory effects of LSD may include echo-like distortions of sounds, changes in ability to discern concurrent auditory stimuli, and a general intensification of the experience of music. Higher doses often cause intense and fundamental distortions of sensory perception such as synaesthesia, the experience of additional spatial or temporal dimensions, and temporary dissociation.

      [edit] Potential uses
      Bottle of LSD from a Swiss clinical trial of LSD for anxiety in cancer patients, c. 2007.LSD has been used in psychiatry for its perceived therapeutic value, in the treatment of alcoholism, pain and cluster headache relief, for spiritual purposes, and to enhance creativity. However, government organizations like the United States Drug Enforcement Administration maintain that LSD “produces no aphrodisiac effects, does not increase creativity, has no lasting positive effect in treating alcoholics or criminals, does not produce a ‘model psychosis’, and does not generate immediate

    39. Psu says:

      PsychotherapyIn the 1950s and 1960s LSD was used in psychiatry to enhance psychotherapy. Some psychiatrists believed LSD was especially useful at helping patients to “unblock” repressed subconscious material through other psychotherapeutic methods,[21] and also for treating alcoholism.[22][23] One study concluded, “The root of the therapeutic value of the LSD experience is its potential for producing self-acceptance and self-surrender,”[24] presumably by forcing the user to face issues and problems in that individual’s psyche.

      In December 1968, a survey was made of all 74 UK doctors who had used LSD in humans; 73 replied, 1 had moved overseas and was unavailable. Of the 73 replies, the majority of UK doctors with clinical experience with LSD felt that LSD was effective and had acceptable safety: 41 (56%) continued with clinical use of LSD, 11 (15%) had stopped because of retirement or other extraneous reasons, 9 (12%) had stopped because they found LSD ineffective, and 5 (7%) had stopped because they felt LSD was too dangerous.[25]

      [edit] End-of-life anxietyFrom 2008-2011 there has been ongoing research in Switzerland into using LSD to alleviate anxiety for terminally ill cancer patients coping with their impending deaths. Preliminary results from the study are promising, and no negative effects have been reported.[26][27][28]

      [edit] AlcoholismSome studies in the 1950s that used LSD to treat alcoholism professed a 50% success rate,[29][30] five times higher than estimates near 10% for Alcoholics Anonymous.[31] A 1998 review was inconclusive.[32] However, a 2012 meta-analysis of 6 randomized controlled trials found evidence that a single dose of LSD was associated with a decrease in alcohol abuse, lasting for several months.[33]

      [edit] PainLSD was studied in the 1960s by Eric Kast as an analgesic for serious and chronic pain caused by cancer or other major trauma.[34] Even at low (sub-psychedelic) dosages, it was found to be at least as effective as traditional opiates, while being much longer lasting in pain reduction (lasting as long as a week after peak effects had subsided). Kast attributed this effect to a decrease in anxiety; that is to say they were not experiencing less pain, but rather being less distressed by pain. This reported effect is being tested (though not using LSD) in an ongoing (as of 2006) study of the effects of the psychedelic tryptamine psilocybin on anxiety in terminal cancer patients.

      [edit] Cluster headachesLSD has been used as a treatment for cluster headaches, an uncommon but extremely painful disorder. Researcher Peter Goadsby describes the headaches as “worse than natural childbirth or even amputation without anesthetic.”[35] Although the phenomenon has not been formally investigated, case reports indicate that LSD and psilocybin can reduce cluster pain and also interrupt the cluster-headache cycle, preventing future headaches from occurring. Currently existing treatments include various ergolines, among other chemicals, so LSD’s efficacy may not be surprising. A dose-response study testing the effectiveness of both LSD and psilocybin was planned at McLean Hospital, although the current status of this project is unclear. A 2006 study by McLean researchers interviewed 53 cluster-headache sufferers who treated themselves with either LSD or psilocybin, finding that a majority of the users of either drug reported beneficial effects.[36] Unlike use of LSD or MDMA in psychotherapy, this research involves non-psychological effects and often sub-psychedelic dosages.[37][38]

      [edit] SpiritualLSD is considered an entheogen because it can catalyze intense spiritual experiences, during which users may feel they have come into contact with a greater spiritual or cosmic order. Users claim to experience lucid sensations where they have “out of body” experiences. Some users report insights into the way the mind works, and some experience permanent shifts in their life perspective. LSD also allows users to view their life from an introspected point of view. From this point of view, a user can travel back in time to a specific moment or memory and relive that moment again.[citation needed] Some users report using introspection to resolve unresolved or negative feelings towards an individual or incident that occurred in the past. Some users consider LSD a religious sacrament, or a powerful tool for access to the divine. Stanislav Grof has written that religious and mystical experiences observed during LSD sessions appear to be phenomenologically indistinguishable from similar descriptions in the sacred scriptures of the great religions of the world and the secret mystical texts of ancient civilizations.[39]

      [edit] CreativityIn the 1950s and 1960s, psychiatrists like Oscar Janiger explored the potential effect of LSD on creativity. Experimental studies attempted to measure the effect of LSD on creative activity and aesthetic appreciation.[40][41][42][43] Seventy professional artists were asked to draw two pictures of a Hopi Indian kachina doll, one before ingesting LSD and one after.[44]

      [edit] Potential adverse effects
      Chart of dependence potential and effective dose/lethal dose of some psychoactive drugs.There have been no documented human deaths from an LSD overdose.[45] It is physiologically well tolerated and there is no evidence for long-lasting physiological effects on the brain or other parts of the human organism.[46]

      LSD may temporarily impair the ability to make sensible judgments and understand common dangers, thus making the user more susceptible to accidents and personal injury. It may cause temporary confusion, difficulty with abstract thinking, or signs of impaired memory and attention span similar to brain damage.[47]

      [edit] Adverse drug interactionsThere is some indication that LSD may trigger a dissociative fugue state in individuals who are taking certain classes of antidepressants such as lithium salts and tricyclics. In such a state, the user has an impulse to wander, and may not be aware of his or her actions, which can lead to physical injury. Anonymous anecdotal reports have attributed seizures and one death to the combination of LSD with lithium.[48] SSRIs noticeably reduce LSD’s subjective effects.[49] MAOIs are also reported to reduce the effects of LSD.[48]

      [edit] Panic and anxietyLSD may trigger panic attacks or feelings of extreme anxiety, colloquially referred to as a “bad trip”.[50]

      [edit] SuggestibilityWhile publicly available documents indicate that the CIA and Department Of Defense have discontinued research into the use of LSD as a means of mind control,[51] research from the 1960s suggests there exists evidence that both mentally ill and healthy people are more suggestible while under its influence.[52][53]

      [edit] PsychosisThere are some cases of LSD inducing a psychosis in people who appeared to be healthy before taking LSD.[54] In most cases, the psychosis-like reaction is of short duration, but in other cases it may be chronic. It is difficult to determine whether LSD itself induces these reactions or if it triggers latent conditions that would have manifested themselves otherwise. The similarities of time course and outcomes between putatively LSD-precipitated and other psychoses suggest that the two types of syndromes are not different and that LSD may have been a nonspecific trigger.[citation needed]

      Estimates of the prevalence of LSD-induced prolonged psychosis lasting over 48 hours have been made by surveying researchers and therapists who had administered LSD:

      Cohen (1960) estimated 0.8 per 1,000 volunteers (the single case among approximately 1250 study volunteers was the identical twin of a schizophrenic and he recovered within 5 days) and 1.8 per 1,000 psychiatric patients (7 cases among approximately 3850 patients, of which 2 cases were “preschizophrenic” or had previous hallucinatory experience, 1 case had unknown outcome, 1 case had incomplete recovery, and 5 cases recovered within up to 6 months).[55]
      Malleson (1971) reported no cases of psychosis among experimental subjects (170 volunteers who received a total of 450 LSD sessions) and estimated 9 per 1,000 among psychiatric patients (37 cases among 4300 patients, of which 8 details are unknown, 10 appeared chronic, and 19 recovered completely within up to 3 months).[25]
      However, in neither survey study was it possible to compare the rate of lasting psychosis in these volunteers and patients receiving LSD with the rate of psychosis found in other groups of research volunteers or in other methods of psychiatric treatment (for example, those receiving placebo).

      Cohen (1960) noted:[55]

      “The hallucinogenic experience is so striking that many subsequent disturbances may be attributed to it without further justification. The highly suggestible or hysterical individual would tend to focus on his LSD experience to explain subsequent illness. Patients have complained to Abramson that their LSD exposure produced migraine headaches and attacks of influenza up to a year later. One Chinese girl became paraplegic and ascribed that catastrophe to LSD. It so happened that these people were all in the control group and had received nothing but tap water.”
      [edit] Flashbacks and HPPDSee also: Flashback (psychology)
      “Flashbacks” are a reported psychological phenomenon in which an individual experiences an episode of some of LSD’s subjective effects long after the drug has worn off, usually in the days after typical doses. In some rarer cases, flashbacks have lasted longer, but are generally short-lived and mild compared to the actual LSD “trip”. Flashbacks can incorporate both positive and negative aspects of LSD trips, and are typically elicited by triggers such as alcohol or cannabis use, stress, caffeine, or sleepiness. Flashbacks have proven difficult to study and are no longer officially recognized as a psychiatric syndrome. However, colloquial usage of the term persists and usually refers to any drug-free experience reminiscent of psychedelic drug effects, with the typical connotation that the episodes are of short duration.

      No definitive explanation is currently available for these experiences. Any attempt at explanation must reflect several observations: first, over 70 percent of LSD users claim never to have “flashed back”; second, the phenomenon does appear linked with LSD use, though a causal connection has not been established; and third, a higher proportion of psychiatric patients report flashbacks than other users.[56] Several studies have tried to determine how likely a user of LSD, not suffering from known psychiatric conditions, is to experience flashbacks. The larger studies include Blumenfeld’s in 1971[57] and Naditch and Fenwick’s in 1977,[58] which arrived at figures of 20% and 28%, respectively.

      Although flashbacks themselves are not recognized as a medical syndrome, there is a recognized syndrome called Hallucinogen Persisting Perception Disorder (HPPD) in which LSD-like visual changes are not temporary and brief, as they are in flash-backs, but instead are persistent, and cause clinically significant impairment or distress. The syndrome is a DSM-IV diagnosis. Several scientific journal articles have described the disorder.[59]

      HPPD differs from flashbacks in that it is persistent and apparently entirely visual (although mood and anxiety disorders are sometimes diagnosed in the same individuals). A recent review suggests that HPPD (as defined in the DSM-IV) is rare and affects only a distinctly vulnerable subpopulation of users.[60] However, it is possible that the prevalence of HPPD is underestimated because most of the diagnoses are applied to people who are willing to admit to their health care practitioner that they have previously used psychotropics, and presumably many people are reluctant to admit this.[61]

      There is no consensus regarding the nature and causes of HPPD (or flashbacks). A study of 44 HPPD subjects who had previously ingested LSD showed EEG abnormalities.[62] Given that some symptoms have environmental triggers, it may represent a failure to adjust visual processing to changing environmental conditions. There are no explanations for why only some individuals develop HPPD. Explanations in terms of LSD physically remaining in the body for months or years after consumption have been discounted by experimental evidence.[56] Some say HPPD is a manifestation of post-traumatic stress disorder, not related to the direct action of LSD on brain chemistry, and varies according to the susceptibility of the individual to the disorder. Many emotionally intense experiences can lead to flashbacks when a person is reminded acutely of the original experience. However, not all published case reports of HPPD appear to describe an anxious hyper-vigilant state reminiscent of post-traumatic stress disorder. Instead, some cases appear to involve only visual symptoms.[56]

      [edit] Uterine contractionsEarly pharmacological testing by Sandoz in laboratory animals showed that LSD can stimulate uterine contractions, with efficacy comparable to ergobasine, the active uterotonic component of the ergot fungus. (Hofmann’s work on ergot derivatives also produced a modified form of ergobasine which became a widely accepted medication used in obstetrics, under the trade name Methergine.) Therefore, LSD use by pregnant women could be dangerous and is contraindicated.[4] However, the relevance of these animal studies to humans is unclear, and a 2008 medical reference guide to drugs in pregnancy and lactation stated, “It appears unlikely that pure LSD administered in a controlled condition is an abortifacient.”[63]

      [edit] GeneticBeginning in 1967, studies raised concerns that LSD might produce genetic damage[64] or developmental abnormalities in fetuses. However, these initial reports were based on in vitro studies or were poorly controlled and have not been substantiated. In studies of chromosomal changes in human users and in monkeys, the balance of evidence suggests no increase in chromosomal damage. For example, white blood cells of people who had been given LSD in a clinical setting were examined for visible chromosomal abnormalities; overall, there appeared to be no lasting changes.[64] Several studies have been conducted using illicit LSD users and provide a less clear picture. Interpretation of these data is generally complicated by factors such as the unknown chemical composition of street LSD, concurrent use of other psychoactive drugs, and diseases such as hepatitis in the sampled populations. It seems possible the small number of genetic abnormalities reported in users of street LSD is either coincidental or related to factors other than a toxic effect of pure LSD.[64] A 2008 medical review concluded, “The available data suggest that pure LSD does not cause chromosomal abnormalities, spontaneous abortions, or congenital malformations.”[63]

      [edit] AntidotesAdverse effects of psychotropics are often treated with fast-acting benzodiazepines like diazepam or triazolam that have calming and antianxiety effects but do not directly affect the specific actions of psychotropics. Theoretically, specific 5-HT2A receptor antagonists, which most commonly means atypical antipsychotics (quetiapine, olanzapine, risperidone, etc.) or other 5-HT2A antagonist such as trazodone or mirtazapine, would be direct antidotes, although some anecdotal reports claim otherwise.[65] Also, some people have reported that taking an SSRI such as fluoxetine will counteract the effects of LSD.[66] Some reports indicate that although administration of chlorpromazine (Thorazine) or similar typical antipsychotic tranquilizers will not end an LSD trip, it will either lessen the intensity or immobilize and numb the patient, a side effect of the medication.[67] While it also may not end an LSD trip, the best chemical treatment for a “bad trip” is an anxiolytic agent such as diazepam (Valium) or another benzodiazepine. As the effect of the drug is psychological as well as physical, any treatment should focus on calming the patient. Limiting stimuli such as bright lights and loud noises can help in the event of an ill reaction.

      Many rumors about home remedies to counteract psychedelic effects are circulated, including vanilla essence, and anti-histamines. These may have a placebo effect, working by making the taker think they have done something to make it better.[68]

      [edit] Chemistry and structure
      The four possible stereoisomers of LSD. Only (+)-LSD is psychoactive.LSD is an ergoline derivative. It is commonly synthesised by reacting diethylamine with an activated form of lysergic acid. Activating reagents include phosphoryl chloride[69] and peptide coupling reagents.[70] Lysergic acid is made by alkaline hydrolysis of lysergamides like ergotamine, a substance derived from the ergot fungus on rye, or from ergine (lysergic acid amide, LSA), a compound that is found in morning glory (Ipomoea tricolor) and Hawaiian baby woodrose (Argyreia nervosa) seeds.

      LSD is a chiral compound with two stereocenters at the carbon atoms C-5 and C-8, so that theoretically four different optical isomers of LSD could exist. LSD, also called (+)-D-LSD, has the absolute configuration (5R,8R). The C-5 isomers of lysergamides do not exist in nature and are not formed during the synthesis from D-lysergic acid. Retrosynthetically, the C-5 stereocenter could be analysed as having the same configuration of the alpha carbon of the naturally occurring amino acid L-tryptophan, the precursor to all biosynthetic ergoline compounds.

      However, LSD and iso-LSD, the two C-8 isomers, rapidly interconvert in the presence of bases, as the alpha proton is acidic and can be deprotonated and reprotonated. Non-psychoactive iso-LSD which has formed during the synthesis can be separated by chromatography and can be isomerized to LSD.

      A totally pure salt of LSD will emit small flashes of white light when shaken in the dark.[5] LSD is strongly fluorescent and will glow bluish-white under UV light.

      [edit] Reactivity and degradation”LSD,” writes the chemist Alexander Shulgin, “is an unusually fragile molecule.”[5] It is stable for indefinite time if stored as a solid salt or dissolved in water, at low temperature and protected from air and light exposure.

      LSD has two labile protons at the tertiary stereogenic C5 and C8 positions, rendering these centres prone to epimerisation. The C8 proton is more labile due to the electron-withdrawing carboxamide attachment, but removal of the chiral proton at the C5 position (which was once also an alpha proton of the parent molecule tryptophan) is assisted by the inductively-withdrawing nitrogen and pi electron delocalisation with the indole ring.[citation needed]

      LSD also has enamine-type reactivity because of the electron-donating effects of the indole ring. Because of this, chlorine destroys LSD molecules on contact; even though chlorinated tap water contains only a slight amount of chlorine, the small quantity of compound typical to an LSD solution will likely be eliminated when dissolved in tap water.[5] The double bond between the 8-position and the aromatic ring, being conjugated with the indole ring, is susceptible to nucleophilic attacks by water or alcohol, especially in the presence of light. LSD often converts to “lumi-LSD”, which is totally inactive in human beings (to the best of current knowledge).

      A controlled study was undertaken to determine the stability of LSD in pooled urine samples.[71] The concentrations of LSD in urine samples were followed over time at various temperatures, in different types of storage containers, at various exposures to different wavelengths of light, and at varying pH values. These studies demonstrated no significant loss in LSD concentration at 25°C for up to four weeks. After four weeks of incubation, a 30% loss in LSD concentration at 37°C and up to a 40% at 45°C were observed. Urine fortified with LSD and stored in amber glass or nontransparent polyethylene containers showed no change in concentration under any light conditions. Stability of LSD in transparent containers under light was dependent on the distance between the light source and the samples, the wavelength of light, exposure time, and the intensity of light. After prolonged exposure to heat in alkaline pH conditions, 10 to 15% of the parent LSD epimerized to iso-LSD. Under acidic conditions, less than 5% of the LSD was converted to iso-LSD. It was also demonstrated that trace amounts of metal ions in buffer or urine could catalyze the decomposition of LSD and that this process can be avoided by the addition of EDTA.

      [edit] Dosage
      White on White blotters (WoW)
      Pink Elephant Blotters Containing LSD
      Bottle of Liquid LSDA single dose of LSD may be between 100 and 500 micrograms—an amount roughly equal to one-tenth the mass of a grain of sand. Threshold effects can be felt with as little as 25 micrograms of LSD.[7][72] Dosages of LSD are measured in micrograms (µg), or millionths of a gram. By comparison, dosages of most drugs, both recreational and medicinal, are measured in milligrams (mg), or thousandths of a gram. For example, an active dose of mescaline, roughly 0.2 to 0.5g, has effects comparable to 100 µg or less of LSD.[4]

      Typical doses in the 1960s ranged from 200 to 1000 µg while street samples of the 1970s contained 30 to 300 µg. By the 1980s, the amount had reduced to between 100 and 125 µg, lowering more in the 1990s to the 20–80 µg range,[73] and even more in the 2000s (decade).[74] [75]

      Estimates for the median lethal dose (LD50) of LSD range from 200 µg/kg to more than 1 mg/kg of human body mass, though most sources report that there are no known human cases of such an overdose. Other sources note one report of a suspected fatal overdose of LSD occurring in November 1975 in Kentucky in which there were indications that ~1/3 of a gram (320 mg or 320,000 µg) had been injected intravenously. (This is a very extraordinary amount, equivalent to over 3,000 times the average LSD dosage of ~100 µg).[76][77] Experiments with LSD have also been done on animals; in 1962, an elephant named Tusko died shortly after being injected with 297 mg, but whether the LSD was the cause of his death is controversial (due, in part, to a plethora of other chemical substances administered simultaneously).[78]

      [edit] PharmacokineticsLSD’s effects normally last from 6–12 hours depending on dosage, tolerance, body weight and age.[5] The Sandoz prospectus for “Delysid” warned: “intermittent disturbances of affect may occasionally persist for several days.”[4] Contrary to early reports and common belief, LSD effects do not last longer than the amount of time significant levels of the drug are present in the blood. Aghajanian and Bing (1964) found LSD had an elimination half-life of only 175 minutes.[1] However, using more accurate techniques, Papac and Foltz (1990) reported that 1 µg/kg oral LSD given to a single male volunteer had an apparent plasma half-life of 5.1 hours, with a peak plasma concentration of 5 ng/mL at 3 hours post-dose.[2]

      [edit] Detection in biological fluidsLSD may be quantified in urine as part of a drug abuse testing program, in plasma or serum to confirm a diagnosis of poisoning in hospitalized victims or in whole blood to assist in a forensic investigation of a traffic or other criminal violation or a case of sudden death. Both the parent drug and its major metabolite are unstable in biofluids when exposed to light, heat or alkaline conditions and therefore specimens are protected from light, stored at the lowest possible temperature and analyzed quickly to minimize losses.[79]

      [edit] Pharmacodynamics
      Binding affinities of LSD for various receptors. The lower the dissociation constant (Ki), the more strongly LSD binds to that receptor (i.e. with higher affinity). The horizontal line represents an approximate value for human plasma concentrations of LSD, and hence, receptor affinities that are above the line are unlikely to be involved in LSD’s effect. Data averaged from data from the Ki DatabaseLSD affects a large number of the G protein coupled receptors, including all dopamine receptor subtypes, and all adrenoreceptor subtypes, as well as many others. LSD binds to most serotonin receptor subtypes except for 5-HT3 and 5-HT4. However, most of these receptors are affected at too low affinity to be sufficiently activated by the brain concentration of approximately 10–20 nM.[80] In humans, recreational doses of LSD can affect 5-HT1A, 5-HT2A, 5-HT2C, 5-HT5A, and 5-HT6 receptors.[1][81] 5-HT5B receptors, which are not present in humans, also have a high affinity for LSD.[82] The psychedelic effects of LSD are attributed to its strong partial agonist effects at 5-HT2A receptors as specific 5-HT2A agonists are psychedelics and largely 5-HT2A specific antagonists block the psychedelic activity of LSD.[80] Exactly how this produces the drug’s effects is unknown, but it is thought that it works by increasing glutamate release in the cerebral cortex and therefore excitation in this area, specifically in layers IV and V.[83] LSD, like many other drugs, has been shown to activate DARPP-32-related pathways.[84]

      [edit] HistoryMain article: History of LSD
      LSD was first synthesized on November 16, 1938[85] by Swiss chemist Albert Hofmann at the Sandoz Laboratories in Basel, Switzerland as part of a large research program searching for medically useful ergot alkaloid derivatives. LSD’s psychedelic properties were discovered 5 years later when Hofmann himself accidentally ingested an unknown quantity of the chemical.[86] The first intentional ingestion of LSD occurred on April 19, 1943,[87] when Hofmann ingested 250 µg of LSD. He said, this would be a threshold dose based on the dosages of other ergot alkaloids. Hofmann found the effects to be much stronger than he anticipated.[88] Sandoz Laboratories introduced LSD as a psychiatric drug in 1947.[89]

      Beginning in the 1950s the US Central Intelligence Agency began a research program code named Project MKULTRA. Experiments included administering LSD to CIA employees, military personnel, doctors, other government agents, prostitutes, mentally ill patients, and members of the general public in order to study their reactions, usually without the subject’s knowledge. The project was revealed in the US congressional Rockefeller Commission report in 1975.

      In 1963 the Sandoz patents expired on LSD.[73] Also in 1963, the US Food and Drug Administration classified LSD as an Investigational New Drug, which meant new restrictions on medical and scientific use.[73] Several figures, including Aldous Huxley, Timothy Leary, and Al Hubbard, began to advocate the consumption of LSD. LSD became central to the counterculture of the 1960s.[90] On October 24, 1968, possession of LSD was made illegal in the United States.[91] The last FDA approved study of LSD in patients ended in 1980, while a study in healthy volunteers was made in the late 1980s. Legally approved and regulated psychiatric use of LSD continued in Switzerland until 1993.[92] Today, medical research is resuming around the world.[93]

      [edit] Production
      Glassware seized by the DEABecause an active dose of LSD is very minute, a large number of doses can be synthesized from a comparatively small amount of raw material. Beginning with ergotamine tartrate, for example, one can manufacture roughly one kilogram of pure, crystalline LSD from five kilograms of the ergotamine salt. Five kilograms of LSD—25 kilograms of ergotamine tartrate—could provide 100 million doses, according to the DEA, more than enough to meet what is believed to be the entire annual U.S. demand. Since the masses involved are so small, concealing and transporting illicit LSD is much easier than smuggling other illegal drugs like cocaine or cannabis.[94]

      Manufacturing LSD requires laboratory equipment and experience in the field of organic chemistry. It takes two to three days to produce 30 to 100 grams of pure compound. It is believed that LSD is not usually produced in large quantities, but rather in a series of small batches. This technique minimizes the loss of precursor chemicals in case a step does not work as expected.[94]

      [edit] Forms
      LSD BlotterLSD is produced in crystalline form and then mixed with excipients or redissolved for production in ingestible forms. Liquid solution is either distributed in small vials or, more commonly, sprayed onto or soaked into a distribution medium. Historically, LSD solutions were first sold on sugar cubes, but practical considerations forced a change to tablet form. Appearing in 1968 as an orange tablet measuring about 6 mm across, “Orange Sunshine” acid was the first largely available form of LSD after its possession was made illegal. Tim Scully, a prominent chemist, made some of it, but said that most “Sunshine” in the USA came by way of Ronald Stark, who imported approximately thirty-five million doses from Europe.[95]

      Over a period of time, tablet dimensions, weight, shape and concentration of LSD evolved from large (4.5–8.1 mm diameter), heavyweight (?150 mg), round, high concentration (90–350 µg/tab) dosage units to small (2.0–3.5 mm diameter) lightweight (as low as 4.7 mg/tab), variously shaped, lower concentration (12–85 µg/tab, average range 30–40 µg/tab) dosage units. LSD tablet shapes have included cylinders, cones, stars, spacecraft and heart shapes. The smallest tablets became known as “Microdots”.[96]

      After tablets came “computer acid” or “blotter paper LSD”, typically made by dipping a preprinted sheet of blotting paper into an LSD/water/alcohol solution.[95][96] More than 200 types of LSD tablets have been encountered since 1969 and more than 350 blotter paper designs have been observed since 1975.[96] About the same time as blotter paper LSD came “Windowpane” (AKA “Clearlight”), which contained LSD inside a thin gelatin square a quarter of an inch across.[95] LSD has been sold under a wide variety of often short-lived and regionally restricted street names including Acid, Trips, Uncle Sid, Blotter, Lucy, Alice and doses, as well as names that reflect the designs on the sheets of blotter paper.[97][98] Authorities have encountered the drug in other forms—including powder or crystal, and capsule.[99]

      [edit] Modern distributionLSD manufacturers and traffickers in the United States can be categorized into two groups: A few large-scale producers, and an equally limited number of small, clandestine chemists, consisting of independent producers who, operating on a comparatively limited scale, can be found throughout the country.[100] As a group, independent producers are of less concern to the Drug Enforcement Administration than the larger groups, as their product reaches only local markets.[101]

      [edit] Mimics
      LSD blotter acid mimic actually containing DOC
      Different blotters which could possibly be mimicsSince 2005, law enforcement in the United States and elsewhere has seized several chemicals and combinations of chemicals in blotter paper which were sold as LSD mimics, including DOB,[102][103] 2C-I,[104][105] DOC,[105] a mixture of DOC and DOI,[106] and a mixture of DOC and DOB.[107] Street users of LSD are often under the impression that blotter paper which is actively hallucinogenic can only be LSD because that is the only chemical with low enough doses to fit on a small square of blotter paper. While it is true that LSD requires lower doses than most other hallucinogens, blotter paper is capable of absorbing a much larger amount of material. The DEA performed a chromatographic analysis of blotter paper containing 2C-C which showed that the paper contained a much greater concentration of the active chemical than typical LSD doses, although the exact quantity was not determined.[108] Blotter LSD mimics can have relatively small dose squares; a sample of blotter paper containing DOC seized by Concord, California police had dose markings approximately 6 mm apart.[105]

      [edit] Legal statusThe United Nations Convention on Psychotropic Substances (adopted in 1971) requires its parties to prohibit LSD. Hence, it is illegal in all parties to the convention, which includes the United States, Australia, New Zealand, and most of Europe. However, enforcement of extant laws varies from country to country. Medical and scientific research with LSD in humans is permitted under the 1971 UN Convention.

      [edit] CanadaIn Canada, LSD is a controlled substance under Schedule III of the Controlled Drugs and Substances Act.[109] Every person who seeks to obtain the substance, without disclosing authorization to obtain such substances 30 days before obtaining another prescription from a practitioner, is guilty of an indictable offense and liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 3 years. Possession for purpose of trafficking is an indictable offense punishable by imprisonment for 10 years.

      [edit] United KingdomIn the United Kingdom, LSD is a class ‘A’ drug. This means possession of the drug without a license is punishable with 7 years imprisonment and/or an unlimited fine, and trafficking is punishable with life imprisonment and an unlimited fine (see main article on drug punishments Misuse of Drugs Act 1971).

      In 2000, after consultation with members of the Royal College of Psychiatrists’ Faculty of Substance Misuse, the UK Police Foundation issued the Runciman Report which recommended “the transfer of LSD from Class A to Class B”.[110]

      In November 2009, the UK Transform Drug Policy Foundation released in the House of Commons a guidebooks to the legal regulation of drugs, After the War on Drugs: Blueprint for Regulation, which details options for regulated distribution and sale of LSD and other psychedelics.[111]

      [edit] United StatesLSD is Schedule I in the United States, according to the Controlled Substances Act of 1970.[112] This means LSD is illegal to manufacture, buy, possess, process, or distribute without a DEA license. By classifying LSD as a Schedule I substance, the Drug Enforcement Administration holds that LSD meets the following three criteria: it is deemed to have a high potential for abuse; it has no legitimate medical use in treatment; and there is a lack of accepted safety for its use under medical supervision. There are no documented deaths from chemical toxicity; most LSD deaths are a result of behavioral toxicity.[113]

      There can also be substantial discrepancies between the amount of chemical LSD that one possesses and the amount of possession with which one can be charged in the U.S. This is because LSD is almost always present in a medium (e.g. blotter or neutral liquid), and the amount that can be considered with respect to sentencing is the total mass of the drug and its medium. This discrepancy was the subject of 1995 United States Supreme Court case, Neal v. U.S.[114]

      Lysergic acid and lysergic acid amide, LSD precursors, are both classified in Schedule III of the Controlled Substances Act. Ergotamine tartrate, a precursor to lysergic acid, is regulated under the Chemical Diversion and Trafficking Act.

      [edit] Notable individualsSome notable individuals have commented publicly on their experiences with LSD.[115][116] Some of these comments date from the era when it was legally available in the US and Europe for non-medical uses, and others pertain to psychiatric treatment in the 1950s and 1960s. Still others describe experiences with illegal LSD, obtained for philosophic, artistic, therapeutic, spiritual, or recreational purposes.

      Steve Jobs, co-founder and CEO of Apple Inc. said, “Taking LSD was a profound experience, one of the most important things in my life.”[117]
      In a 2004 interview, Paul McCartney said that The Beatles songs “Day Tripper” and “Lucy in the Sky with Diamonds” are about LSD. John Lennon, George Harrison, and Ringo Starr also experimented with the drug, although McCartney cautioned that “it’s easy to overestimate the influence of drugs on the Beatles’ music.”[118]
      Kary Mullis is reported to credit LSD with helping him develop DNA amplification technology.[119]
      Aldous Huxley, author of Brave New World became a user of psychedelics after moving to Hollywood, CA. He was at the forefront of the counterculture’s experimentation with psychedelic drugs, which led to his 1954 work The Doors of Perception. Dying of cancer, on November 22, 1963, he asked his wife to inject him with 100 µg of LSD. He died from the cancer later that day.[120]
      [edit] See alsoALD-52, chemical analogue of LSD
      Ayahuasca
      Dimethyltryptamine
      Ergine, Lysergic acid amide (LSA), chemical analogue of LSD
      Icaro, shamanic tool to prepare Ayahuasca
      Methysergide, headache medication, chemically related to LSD
      Psychedelic drug
      Psychedelic experience
      Unethical human experimentation in the United States
      Urban legends about LSD
      [edit] References1.^ a b c Aghajanian, George K.; Bing, Oscar H. L. (1964). “Persistence of lysergic acid diethylamide in the plasma of human subjects” (PDF). Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics 5: 611–614. PMID 14209776. http://www.maps.org/w3pb/new/1964/1964_aghajanian_2224_1.pdf. Retrieved 2009-09-17.
      2.^ a b Papac, DI; Foltz, RL (May/June 1990). “Measurement of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) in human plasma by gas chromatography/negative ion chemical ionization mass spectrometry” (PDF). Journal of Analytical Toxicology 14 (3): 189–190. PMID 2374410. http://www.erowid.org/references/refs_view.php?A=ShowDocPartFrame&C=ref&ID=6265&DocPartID=6624. Retrieved 2009-09-17.
      3.^ Passie T, Halpern JH, Stichtenoth DO, Emrich HM, Hintzen A (2008). “The Pharmacology of Lysergic Acid Diethylamide: a Review”. CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics 14 (4): 295–314. doi:10.1111/j.1755-5949.2008.00059.x. PMID 19040555. http://www.maps.org/w3pb/new/2008/2008_Passie_23067_1.pdf.
      4.^ a b c d Hofmann, Albert. LSD—My Problem Child (McGraw-Hill, 1980). ISBN 0-07-029325-2.
      5.^ a b c d e Alexander and Ann Shulgin. “LSD”, in TiHKAL (Berkeley: Transform Press, 1997). ISBN 0-9630096-9-9.
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      [edit] Further readingBBC News: Pont-Saint-Esprit poisoning: Did the CIA spread LSD?
      Bebergal, Peter, “Will Harvard drop acid again? Psychedelic research returns to Crimsonland”, The Phoenix (Boston), June 2, 2008
      Grof, Stanislav. LSD Psychotherapy. (April 10, 2001)
      Lee, Martin A. and Bruce Shlain. Acid Dreams: The Complete Social History of LSD: The CIA, the Sixties, and Beyond (1992) ISBN 978-0-8021-3062-4
      Marks, John. The Search for the Manchurian Candidate: The CIA and Mind Control (1979), ISBN 0-8129-0773-6
      Roberts, Andy. Albion Dreaming: A Popular History of LSD in Britain (2008), Marshall Cavendish,U.K, ISBN 1-905736-27-4
      Stevens, Jay. Storming Heaven: LSD And The American Dream (1998) ISBN 978-0-8021-3587-2
      Hofmann, Albert. LSD My Problem Child: Reflections on Sacred Drugs, Mysticism and Science (1983) ISBN 978-0-9660019-8-3
      Henderson, Leigh A. and William J. Glass. LSD: Still With Us After All These Years: Based on the National Institute of Drug Abuse Studies on the Resurgence of Contemporary LSD Use (1st edition 1994, 2nd edition 1998) ISBN 978-0-7879-4379-0
      de Rios, Marlene Dobkin and Oscar Janiger. LSD, spirituality, and the creative process (2003, Inner Traditions) ISBN 978-0-89281-973-7 – “An exploration of how LSD influences imagination and the creative process. Based on the results of one of the longest clinical studies of LSD that took place between 1954 and 1962, before LSD was illegal. Includes personal reports, artwork, and poetry from the original sessions as testimony of the impact of LSD on the creative process.”
      Passie T, Halpern JH, Stichtenoth DO, Emrich HM, Hintzen A (2008). “The pharmacology of lysergic acid diethylamide: a review”. CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics 14 (4): 295–314. doi:10.1111/j.1755-5949.2008.00059.x. PMID 19040555

    40. Psu says:

      Wonder whats going on in Amsterdam?

    41. Psu says:

      What about Portugal?

    42. Psu says:

      too bad the dea hasnt done enough tests on marijuana to determine if it has medicinal value

    43. Psu says:

      Cancer can be treated by surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, immunotherapy, monoclonal antibody therapy or other methods. The choice of therapy depends upon the location and grade of the tumor and the stage of the disease, as well as the general state of the patient (performance status). A number of experimental cancer treatments are also under development.

      Complete removal of the cancer without damage to the rest of the body is the goal of treatment. Sometimes this can be accomplished by surgery, but the propensity of cancers to invade adjacent tissue or to spread to distant sites by microscopic metastasis often limits its effectiveness. The effectiveness of chemotherapy is often limited by toxicity to other tissues in the body. Radiation can also cause damage to normal tissue.

      Because “cancer” refers to a class of diseases,[1][2] it is unlikely that there will ever be a single “cure for cancer” any more than there will be a single treatment for all infectious diseases.[3] Angiogenesis inhibitors were once thought to have potential as a “silver bullet” treatment applicable to many types of cancer, but this has not been the case in practice.[4]

    44. Psu says:

      any with AMA wanna comment? This is an open forum you didnt get your voice heard in the 1930′s. Where is the AMA on this?

    45. Psu says:

      Hoffman was a war hero

    46. Psu says:

      insurance companies dont want you use a drug you can grow in your house

    47. Psu says:

      just send people to rehab to break their marijuana addiction if its so bad

    48. Psu says:

      SurgeryIn theory, non-hematological cancers can be cured if entirely removed by surgery, but this is not always possible. When the cancer has metastasized to other sites in the body prior to surgery, complete surgical excision is usually impossible. In the Halstedian model of cancer progression, tumors grow locally, then spread to the lymph nodes, then to the rest of the body. This has given rise to the popularity of local-only treatments such as surgery for small cancers. Even small localized tumors are increasingly recognized as possessing metastatic potential.

      Examples of surgical procedures for cancer include mastectomy for breast cancer, prostatectomy for prostate cancer, and lung cancer surgery for non-small cell lung cancer. The goal of the surgery can be either the removal of only the tumor, or the entire organ. A single cancer cell is invisible to the naked eye but can regrow into a new tumor, a process called recurrence. For this reason, the pathologist will examine the surgical specimen to determine if a margin of healthy tissue is present, thus decreasing the chance that microscopic cancer cells are left in the patient.

      In addition to removal of the primary tumor, surgery is often necessary for staging, e.g. determining the extent of the disease and whether it has metastasized to regional lymph nodes. Staging is a major determinant of prognosis and of the need for adjuvant therapy.

      Occasionally, surgery is necessary to control symptoms, such as spinal cord compression or bowel obstruction. This is referred to as palliative treatment.

      If surgery is possible and appropriate, it is commonly performed before other forms of treatment, although the order does not affect the outcome.[5] In some instances, surgery must be delayed until other treatments are able to shrink the tumor.

      [edit] Radiation therapyMain article: Radiation therapy
      Radiation therapy (also called radiotherapy, X-ray therapy, or irradiation) is the use of ionizing radiation to kill cancer cells and shrink tumors. Radiation therapy can be administered externally via external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) or internally via brachytherapy. The effects of radiation therapy are localised and confined to the region being treated. Radiation therapy injures or destroys cells in the area being treated (the “target tissue”) by damaging their genetic material, making it impossible for these cells to continue to grow and divide. Although radiation damages both cancer cells and normal cells, most normal cells can recover from the effects of radiation and function properly. The goal of radiation therapy is to damage as many cancer cells as possible, while limiting harm to nearby healthy tissue. Hence, it is given in many fractions, allowing healthy tissue to recover between fractions.

      Radiation therapy may be used to treat almost every type of solid tumor, including cancers of the brain, breast, cervix, larynx, lung, pancreas, prostate, skin, stomach, uterus, or soft tissue sarcomas. Radiation is also used to treat leukemia and lymphoma. Radiation dose to each site depends on a number of factors, including the radiosensitivity of each cancer type and whether there are tissues and organs nearby that may be damaged by radiation. Thus, as with every form of treatment, radiation therapy is not without its side effects.

      [edit] ChemotherapyMain article: Chemotherapy
      Chemotherapy is the treatment of cancer with drugs (“anticancer drugs”) that can destroy cancer cells. In current usage, the term “chemotherapy” usually refers to cytotoxic drugs which affect rapidly dividing cells in general, in contrast with targeted therapy (see below). Chemotherapy drugs interfere with cell division in various possible ways, e.g. with the duplication of DNA or the separation of newly formed chromosomes. Most forms of chemotherapy target all rapidly dividing cells and are not specific to cancer cells, although some degree of specificity may come from the inability of many cancer cells to repair DNA damage, while normal cells generally can. Hence, chemotherapy has the potential to harm healthy tissue, especially those tissues that have a high replacement rate (e.g. intestinal lining). These cells usually repair themselves after chemotherapy.

      Because some drugs work better together than alone, two or more drugs are often given at the same time. This is called “combination chemotherapy”; most chemotherapy regimens are given in a combination.[6]

      The treatment of some leukaemias and lymphomas requires the use of high-dose chemotherapy, and total body irradiation (TBI). This treatment ablates the bone marrow, and hence the body’s ability to recover and repopulate the blood. For this reason, bone marrow, or peripheral blood stem cell harvesting is carried out before the ablative part of the therapy, to enable “rescue” after the treatment has been given. This is known as autologous stem cell transplantation. Alternatively, hematopoietic stem cells may be transplanted from a matched unrelated donor (MUD).

      [edit] Targeted therapiesMain article: Targeted therapy
      Targeted therapy, which first became available in the late 1990s, has had a significant impact in the treatment of some types of cancer, and is currently a very active research area. This constitutes the use of agents specific for the deregulated proteins of cancer cells. Small molecule targeted therapy drugs are generally inhibitors of enzymatic domains on mutated, overexpressed, or otherwise critical proteins within the cancer cell. Prominent examples are the tyrosine kinase inhibitors imatinib (Gleevec/Glivec) and gefitinib (Iressa).

      Monoclonal antibody therapy is another strategy in which the therapeutic agent is an antibody which specifically binds to a protein on the surface of the cancer cells. Examples include the anti-HER2/neu antibody trastuzumab (Herceptin) used in breast cancer, and the anti-CD20 antibody rituximab, used in a variety of B-cell malignancies.

      Targeted therapy can also involve small peptides as “homing devices” which can bind to cell surface receptors or affected extracellular matrix surrounding the tumor. Radionuclides which are attached to these peptides (e.g. RGDs) eventually kill the cancer cell if the nuclide decays in the vicinity of the cell. Especially oligo- or multimers of these binding motifs are of great interest, since this can lead to enhanced tumor specificity and avidity.

      Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a ternary treatment for cancer involving a photosensitizer, tissue oxygen, and light (often using lasers). PDT can be used as treatment for basal cell carcinoma (BCC) or lung cancer; PDT can also be useful in removing traces of malignant tissue after surgical removal of large tumors.[7]

      [edit] Immunotherapy
      A renal cell carcinoma (lower left) in a kidney specimen.Main article: Cancer immunotherapy
      Cancer immunotherapy refers to a diverse set of therapeutic strategies designed to induce the patient’s own immune system to fight the tumor. Contemporary methods for generating an immune response against tumours include intravesical BCG immunotherapy for superficial bladder cancer, and use of interferons and other cytokines to induce an immune response in renal cell carcinoma and melanoma patients. Vaccines to generate specific immune responses are the subject of intensive research for a number of tumours, notably malignant melanoma and renal cell carcinoma. Sipuleucel-T is a vaccine-like strategy in late clinical trials for prostate cancer in which dendritic cells from the patient are loaded with prostatic acid phosphatase peptides to induce a specific immune response against prostate-derived cells.

      Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (“bone marrow transplantation” from a genetically non-identical donor) can be considered a form of immunotherapy, since the donor’s immune cells will often attack the tumor in a phenomenon known as graft-versus-tumor effect. For this reason, allogeneic HSCT leads to a higher cure rate than autologous transplantation for several cancer types, although the side effects are also more severe.

      The cell based immunotherapy in which the patients own Natural Killer cells(NK) and Cytotoxic T-Lymphocytes(CTL) are used has been in practice in Japan since 1990. NK cells and CTLs primarily kill the cancer cells when they are developed. This treatment is given together with the other modes of treatment such as Surgery, radiotherapy or Chemotherapy and called as Autologous Immune Enhancement Therapy (AIET)[8] [9]

      [edit] Hormonal therapyMain article: Hormonal therapy (oncology)
      The growth of some cancers can be inhibited by providing or blocking certain hormones. Common examples of hormone-sensitive tumors include certain types of breast and prostate cancers. Removing or blocking estrogen or testosterone is often an important additional treatment. In certain cancers, administration of hormone agonists, such as progestogens may be therapeutically beneficial.

    49. Psu says:

      Dopamine — a simple organic chemical in the catecholamine family — plays a number of important physiological roles in the bodies of animals. Its name derives from its chemical structure, which consists of an amine group (NH2) linked to a catechol structure called dihydroxyphenylalanine (acronym DOPA). In the brain, dopamine functions as a neurotransmitter — a chemical released by nerve cells to send signals to other nerve cells. The human brain uses five known types of dopamine receptors, labeled D1, D2, D3, D4, and D5. Dopamine is produced in several areas of the brain, including the substantia nigra and the ventral tegmental area.

      Dopamine plays a major role in the brain system that is responsible for reward-driven learning. Every type of reward that has been studied increases the level of dopamine transmission in the brain, and a variety of highly addictive drugs, including stimulants such as cocaine and methamphetamine, act directly on the dopamine system. There is evidence that people with extraverted (reward-seeking) personality types tend to show higher levels of dopamine activity than people with introverted personalities. Several important diseases of the nervous system are associated with dysfunctions of the dopamine system. Parkinson’s disease, an age-related degenerative condition causing tremor and motor impairment, is caused by loss of dopamine-secreting neurons in the substantia nigra. Schizophrenia has been shown to involve elevated levels of dopamine activity in the mesolimbic pathway and decreased levels of dopamine in the prefrontal cortex.[1][2] Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is also believed to be associated with decreased dopamine activity.[citation needed]

      Dopamine is available as an intravenous medication acting on the sympathetic nervous system, producing effects such as increased heart rate and blood pressure. However, because dopamine cannot cross the blood–brain barrier, dopamine given as a drug does not directly affect the central nervous system. To increase the amount of dopamine in the brains of patients with diseases such as Parkinson’s disease and dopa-responsive dystonia, L-DOPA (the precursor of dopamine) is often given because it crosses the blood-brain barrier relatively easily.

    50. Psu says:

      can i have some dopamine?

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